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In detail the broad range of both chemical and physical methods used to enhance the skin delivery of drugs is described. All aspects of drug delivery and measurement of penetration are covered and the latest findings are provided on skin structure and function, mathematics in skin permeation and modern analytical techniques adapted to assess and measure penetration. In offering a detailed description of the methods currently in use for penetration enhancement, this book will be of value for researchers, pharmaceutical scientists, practitioners and also students.
Status of surfactants as penetration enhancers in transdermal drug delivery Iti SomKashish BhatiaMohd. Correspondence Address : Mohd. Surfactants are found in many existing therapeutic, cosmetic, and agro-chemical preparations.
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Chemical penetration enhancers CPEs are present in a large number of transdermal, dermatological, and cosmetic products to aid dermal absorption of curatives and aesthetics. This wide spectrum of use is based on only a handful of molecules, the majority of which belong to three to four typical chemical functionalities, sporadically introduced as CPEs in the last 50 years. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies revealed that regardless of their chemical make-up, CPEs perturb the skin barrier via extraction or fluidization of lipid bilayers.
Skin penetration enhancers are the most commonly used approach for enhancing drug penetration into the skin through transdermal drug delivery system or topical administration. These skin penetration enhancers are molecules which reversibly remove the barrier resistance of the stratum corneum and allow drugs to penetrate more readily to the viable tissues and thus enter the systemic circulation. The purpose of this review was to present penetration enhancing potential of Aloe Vera.
The stratum corneum SC is the uppermost layer of the skin, which provides an efficient barrier function. This barrier is always an obstacle for cosmetic formulations or medical ointments applied to the skin. The permeation through the SC barrier is successful when penetration enhancers are added into the formulation.
Percutaneous absorption enhancers: mechanisms and potential. Prefeito Lothario Meissner, ; ; lcarpen ufpr. Transdermal applications of drugs present many advantages in terms of absorption, however this is not easily obtained through the transdermal route.
However, the outer most layer of the human skin, stratum corneum; possess the formidable barrier to drug penetration thereby reducing bio-availability. Most of the drugs do not have an ability to penetrate the stratum corneum. Owing to the side effects of chemical penetration enhancers interest has been aroused among researchers to find out natural sources as penetration enhancers to improve the bio-availability of drugs so that they can be delivered through skin.