While breast cancer mortality has declined in recent years, the mortality gap between African-American and white women continues to grow. Current strategies to reduce this disparity focus on logistical and information needs, but contextual factors, such as concerns about racism and treatment side effects, may also represent significant barriers to improved outcomes. To characterize perceptions of breast cancer treatment among African-American women and men.
Breast reduction, like breast enhancement, involves incisions in the skin. Scars are inevitable with any surgery, including breast reduction. But this doesn't mean you'll necessarily be stuck with significant scarring.
Breast disorders in males can be distressing for both patients and examining doctors. Patients often feel embarrassed and anxious. This review covers the causes, evaluation, and treatment of gynaecomastia and the risk factors for and evaluation and treatment of breast cancer in males.
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Skip to Content. Use the menu to see other pages. Although risk factors often influence the development of cancer, most do not directly cause cancer.
Cancer affects all population groups in the United States. But certain groups may bear a disproportionate burden of cancer compared with other groups. Cancer disparities sometimes called cancer health disparities are differences in cancer measures such as:.
This paper will explore a solution to reduce the number of breast cancer deaths in African-American women. African-American women are equally as likely as white women to get breast cancer. The causes for this disparity are multifaceted and include bias hypothesis, preference hypothesis, and communication hypothesis.
The study, published in the Journal of Clinical Oncologyfound that the disparity was significantly reduced after accounting for differences in insurance and income. Black men have a higher incidence of breast cancer and are more likely to be diagnosed with breast cancer at a younger age than their white counterparts. The NCDB is jointly sponsored by the American College of Surgeons and the American Cancer Society and collects information on demographics, tumor characteristics, and treating hospital characteristics in addition to detailed information about the first course of treatment. Treatment patterns were generally similar between blacks and whites of all ages.
Click on the icons below to find more information on the U. S metropolitan areas with the greatest disparities in breast cancer mortality rate between African-American and white women. Cities with the icons below are the U.
There are different types of breast cancer, according to whether or not they express the estrogen receptor ER. In ER- positive breast cancer, estrogen — a hormone — encourages the cancer cells to grow. But having children also increases the risk of ER- negative breast cancer — the more aggressive type that more often found in black women.